How many people have dyslexia?
We do not really know how many people have dyslexia. Since there has not been a generally accepted definition until recently, estimates have varied widely. The National Institutes of Health have estimated that 15% of the population may be dyslexic. In Tennessee, we estimate that at least 100,000 students in K-12 classes may be dyslexic. What causes dyslexia?
Dyslexia is a consequence of the way a person's brain is organized. Learning to read requires making the association between printed symbols and spoken words and spoken sounds. These associations must become firmly fixed in memory for reading to be fluent. People with dyslexia have great difficulty establishing these associations. The exact cause of the difference in the brain is not known, but recent research and new technology make it possible to identify some of the differences in the brains of people with dyslexia. Also, interviews suggest that dyslexia appears in families across generations. Currently, the search for the possible genetic basis of dyslexia is underway in various locations around the world. Do people with dyslexia see words backwards?
There is some evidence that visual dyslexia affects some people. These people have great difficulty establishing left-to-right order for many confusable letters (b/d) and words (was/saw). Very few may actually be able to read books in the upside-down orientation more efficiently than in the typical orientation. However, most people with visual dyslexia have difficulty coming up with the pronunciation of words wherein clusters of letters are used to spell one sound -- words such as sight, road, slide -- or words containing pairings of letters that might spell different sounds in different words -- words such as limb/climb, eight/ate, through/though/tough, believe/receive. Recently, people with such difficulties have been described as orthographic dyslexics. Will colored lenses help a person with dyslexia read better?
There is no solid research evidence that using colored lenses will improve reading for dyslexics. For people with dyslexia to learn to read, they must receive many hours of careful, systematic instruction in the sound system of the language. Any other treatments which may be recommended and attempted should not replace direct instruction in reading and writing. See recent article re color lenses, in the following link, Tinted Lenses
. How do I know if my child has dyslexia?
If your child has had difficulty learning to read words and spell, she might have dyslexia. Young children with dyslexia typically have difficulty learning the alphabet, rhyming, and dividing words into their sounds. Many parents of students with dyslexia describe their children as bright and eager learners until they encounter instruction in reading. At such time, they often become frustrated and despondent. Sometimes these children are able to memorize enough words to appear as if they are reading. When the number of words they must memorize becomes overwhelming (about third grade), the difficulty with reading becomes apparent. Simply stated, if your child has unusual difficulty pronouncing the words when he/she reads and spelling the words he/she writes (compared to others of the same age), you should consider an assessment for dyslexia. How can I have my child assessed for dyslexia?
If you think your child may be dyslexic, contact your school principal and explain your concern. Under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA Reauthorization 2004) and Public Law 94-142, the Education for all Handicapped Children Act of 1978, you are entitled to have your child evaluated by the school. Generally, schools provide a basic evaluation, but they do not always make a differential diagnosis for dyslexia. Should you wish to pursue the diagnosis privately, you should seek a qualified evaluator. If you decide to use a private evaluator, ask if this individual is familiar with diagnosing dyslexia and which areas she will be testing. A diagnosis of dyslexia can be made after these areas have been assessed: general ability, word recognition, word attack (sounding out words), spelling, reading comprehension, and written expression. In addition, a comprehensive evaluation will include assessment of oral language skills which affect learning to read and write. In Tennessee, contact the Center for the Study and Treatment of Dyslexia for information on testing your child. Can a person be dyslexic and have an attention deficit disorder (ADD)?
Yes. Recent research indicates that about 30% of individuals with dyslexia also have an attention deficit disorder (ADD). Can dyslexia be cured?
No. Dyslexia is a lifelong condition. However, with appropriate remediation, individuals with dyslexia can learn to read and write. With good instruction, dyslexia becomes much less debilitating. Many students with dyslexia now attend college and become successful in positions which require considerable reading and writing. Without this instruction, many people with dyslexia will suffer from frustration, decreased self-esteem, and difficulty maintaining employment commensurate with their ability. Recent research indicates that more than half of people incarcerated suffer from undiagnosed or inadequately addressed dyslexia and other learning disabilities.